India ratifies 2nd commitment period of Kyoto Protocol
India has ratified the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol that commits countries to contain the emission of greenhouse gases, reaffirming its stand on climate action.
With this, India became the 80th country to accept the amendment relating to the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, the international emissions reduction treaty.
- The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty which extends the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that commits State Parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, based on the scientific consensus that (a) global warming is occurring and (b) it is extremely likely that human-made CO2 emissions have predominantly caused it.
- The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Kyoto, Japan, on December 11, 1997 and entered into force on February 16, 2005. There are currently 192 parties (Canada withdrew effective December 2012) to the Protocol.
- The Kyoto Protocol implemented the objective of the UNFCCC to fight global warming by reducing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere to “a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system” (Art. 2).
- The Protocol is based on the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities: it puts the obligation to reduce current emissions on developed countries on the basis that they are historically responsible for the current levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
- The first commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol was from 2008-2012.
- The Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Qatar in December 2012.
- The amendment includes new commitments for parties to the Kyoto Protocol who agreed to take on commitments in a second commitment period from January 2013 to December 2020 and a revised list of greenhouse gases to be reported on by Parties in the second commitment period, according to the UNFCCC website.
Goal of reduction of 4 Greenhouse Gases belonging to Hydro-fluorocarbons and Perfluorocarbons group:
- Carbon Dioxide
- Nitrous Oxide
- Sulphur Hexafluoride
In addition, ratifiers of the Kyoto Protocol can purchase carbon credits to help offset their emissions.
- UNFCCC ( United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change ) is negotiated at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED).
- UNCED is informally known as the Earth Summit 1992, held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
List of UNFCCC Summits
- 1995: COP 1, The Berlin Mandate
- 1996: COP 2, Geneva, Switzerland
- 1997: COP 3, The Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change
- 1998: COP 4. Buenos Aires, Argentina
- 1999: COP 5, Bonn, Germany
- 2000: COP 6. The Hague. Netherlands
- 2001: COP 6, Bonn. Germany
- 2001: COP 7. Marrakech, Morocco
- 2002: COP 8, New Delhi, India
- 2003: COP 9, Milan, Italy
- 2004: COP 10. Buenos Aires. Argentina
- 2005: COP 11/CMP 1. Montreal, Canada
- 2006: COP 12/CMP 2, Nairobi. Kenya
- 2007: COP 13/CMP 3, Bali, Indonesia
- 2008: COP 14/CMP 4, Poznan. Poland
- 2009: COP 15/CMP 5, Copenhagen, Denmark
- 2010: COP 16/CMP 6, Canciin, Mexico
- 2011: COP 17/CMP 7, Durban, South Africa
- 2012: COP 18/CMP 8, Doha, Qatar
- 2013: COP 19/CMP 9, Warsaw, Poland
- 2014: COP 20/CMP 10. Lima, Peru
- 2015: COP 21/CMP 11, Paris, France
- 2016: COP 22/CMP 12, Marrakech, Morocco
- The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Kyoto, Japan, in 1997.
- India ratified Kyoto Protocol in 2002.
- The Kyoto Protocol came into force in February 2005.
- There are currently 192 Parties.
- USA never ratified Kyoto Protocol.
- Canada withdrew in 2012.
- Goal: Fight global warming by reducing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere to “a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system.”
- Kyoto protocol aimed to cut emissions of greenhouse gases across the developed world by about 5 per cent by 2012 compared with 1990 levels.
- The Protocol is based on the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities.
- Kyoto Protocol is the only global treaty with binding limits on GHG emissions.
Doha Summit, 2012
- COP 18, CPM 8
- Kyoto Extended: It established a second commitment period (2013 – 2020) of the Kyoto Protocol.
- Japan, Russia and Canada refused to join the second commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol.
- It finalized the host for Green Climate Fund.
Warsaw Summit, 2013
- COP19, CMP9.
- 2013 United Nations Climate Change Conference.
- The G77 and China bloc led 132 poor countries in a walk out during talks about “loss and damage” compensation for the consequences of global warming.
- Poor countries have demanded that the developed world give them $100 billion annually by 2020.
Article by Azad Bukhari
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